As a basis for understanding the problems associated with RF interference in wireless LANs, it is important to understand how 802.11 stations (client radios and access points) access the wireless (air) medium. Each 802.11 station only transmits packets when there is no other station transmitting. If another station happens to be sending a packet, the other stations will wait until the medium is free. The actual 802.11 medium access protocol is somewhat more complex, but this gives the user a general idea of the process.
RF interference involves the presence of unwanted, interfering RF signals that disrupt normal wireless operations. Because of the 802.11 medium access protocol, an interfering RF signal of sufficient amplitude and frequency can appear as a bogus 802.11 station transmitting a packet. This causes legitimate 802.11 stations to wait for indefinite periods of time before attempting to access the medium until the interfering signal goes away.
RF interference does not abide by the 802.11 protocols, so the interfering signal may start abruptly while a legitimate 802.11 station is in the process of transmitting a packet. If this occurs, the destination station will receive the packet with errors and not reply to the source station with an acknowledgment. In return, the source station will attempt to re-transmit the packet, adding overhead on the network.
Of course this all leads to network latency and unhappy users. In some instances, 802.11 protocols will attempt to continue operation in the presence of RF interference by automatically switching to a lower data rate, which also slows the use of wireless applications. The worst case, which is fairly uncommon, is that the 802.11 stations will hold off until the interfering signal completely goes away, which could be minutes, hours or days.
With 2.4 GHz wireless LANs, there are several sources of interfering signals, including microwave ovens, cordless phones, Bluetooth enabled devices, FHSS wireless LANs and neighboring wireless LANs. The most damaging of these are 2.4 GHz cordless phones that are used extensively in homes and businesses. If one of these phones is in use within the same room as a 2.4GHz (802.11b or 802.11g) wireless LAN, then expect poor wireless LAN performance when the phones are in operation.
Microwave operating within 10 feet or so of an access point may also cause 802.11b/g performance to drop. The oven must be operating for the interference to occur, which may not happen very often depending on the usage of the oven. Bluetooth enabled devices, such as laptops and PDAs, will cause performance degradations if operating in close proximately to 802.11 stations, especially if the 802.11 station is relatively far (i.e., low signal levels) from the station that it is attempting communication. The presence of FHSS wireless LANs is rare, but when present, expect serious interference to occur. Other wireless LANs, such as one that your neighbor may be operating, can cause interference unless you coordinate the selection of 802.11b/g channels.
The following tips should be considered for reducing RF interference issues.
- Analyze the potential for RF interference. Do this before installing the wireless LAN by performing a RF site survey. Also, talk to people within the facility and learn about other RF devices that might be in use. This information will help when deciding what course of action to take in order to reduce the interference.
- Prevent the interfering sources from operating. Once you know the potential sources of RF interference, you may be able to eliminate them by simply turning them off. This is the best way to counter RF interference; however, it is not always practical.
You cannot tell the company next door to stop using their cordless phones.However, you may be able to disallow the use of Bluetooth-enabled devices or microwave ovens where your 802.11 users reside.
- Provide adequate wireless LAN coverage. A good practice for reducing impacts of RF interference is to ensure the wireless LAN has strong signals throughout the areas where users will reside. If signals get too weak, then interfering signals will be more troublesome. Do a thorough RF site survey to determine the most effective number and placement of access points.
- Set proper configuration parameters. If you are deploying 802.11g networks, tune access points to channels that avoid the frequencies of potential interfering signals.
Microwave ovens generally offer interference in the upper portion of the 2.4GHz band. As a result, you may be able to avoid microwave oven interference by tuning the access points near the microwave oven to channel 1 or 6 instead of 11.
- Deploy 5GHz wireless LANs. Most potential for RF interference today is in the 2.4 GHz band (i.e., 802.11b/g). If you find that other interference avoidance techniques do not work well enough, then consider deploying 802.11a or 802.11n networks. In addition to avoiding RF interference, you will also receive much higher throughput.
The problem with RF interference is that it will likely change over time.
A neighbor may purchase a cordless phone and start using it frequently, or the use of wireless LANs in your area may increase. This means that the resulting impacts of RF interference may grow over time, or they may come and go. As a result, in addition to suspecting RF interference as the underlying problem for poor performance, investigate the potential for RF interference in a proactive manner.
Keep a continual close watch on the use of wireless devices that might cause interference with the performance of your wireless LAN.
Related links that may assist in troubleshooting Wi-Fi